How to choose the features of drugs?

Like any other neurological disorder, sleep disorders require a careful approach and complex therapy.

First of all, the doctor needs to understand the causes of this state, to exclude pathologies that could cause such disorders.

Sleeping pills – a quick and relatively safe way to normalize the patient’s health. But the principle of operation of most drugs of this class is closely related to the effect on the central nervous system (CNS), therefore uncontrolled reception, especially for a long time, is fraught with serious complications, the development of addiction and other side effects.

Main pharmacological groups

The wide spread of sleep disorders prompted the medical profession to a more detailed study of the physiology of this process and the causes contributing to such disorders. Sleep consists of several stages:

  • the first and second phases of REM sleep (it takes 2–5% and 45–55% of the total duration of the night’s rest, respectively);
  • the deepest delta is sleep (13–23%);
  • fast sleep (20 – 25%).

Normally, the duration of healthy sleep is from 6.5 to 8.5 hours. This time is enough for a good rest and recuperation. In this case, wakefulness (the process of falling asleep) should take no more than 5%. Insomnia is accompanied by a violation of the duration of all phases of sleep, their frequent change.

The main cause of persistent insomnia is mental illness (detected in 40% of patients) and a variety of chronic pathologies (diagnosed in 35% of patients). However, in 15% of cases, it is not possible to reliably establish the cause of sleep disorders, and then symptomatic therapy is prescribed.

The use of hypnotic drugs helps to normalize sleep and eliminate the main signs of insomnia:

  • general weakness and malaise;
  • decrease in mood;
  • depressed state;
  • lack of motivation, energy and initiative;
  • decrease in concentration of attention, which affects the quality of work performed, ability to drive motor vehicles, etc .;
  • heart rhythm disturbances, nausea, appetite upset.

But in addition to drugs, there are other methods of treating insomnia (psychotherapy, phototherapy, encephalophony, hypnotherapy). Given the relatively high probability of undesirable reactions, medications are used only if there is no result from other ways of dealing with insomnia.

For the treatment of insomnia, drugs are used from the following pharmacological groups:

  • herbal preparations, charges of medicinal herbs with a sedative effect;
  • agents that mimic the effects of the hormone melatonin;
  • blockers of N-histamine receptors (antihistamine drugs);
  • benzodiazepines;
  • barbiturates;
  • antipsychotics and antidepressants with a predominant hypnotic effect.

More recently, non-benzodiazepine so-called Z drugs have entered clinical practice (the name of this group is derived from three active ingredients – a derivative of cyclopyrrolone zopiclon, imidazopyridine zolpidem and pyrozolopyrimidine zaleplon). It is these sleeping pills and sedatives that are considered the safest for treating insomnia.

Sleeping pills: classification and principle of action

Like any other neurological disorder, sleep disorders require a careful approach and complex therapy. First of all, the doctor needs to understand the causes of this state, to exclude pathologies that could cause such disorders.

Sleeping pills – a quick and relatively safe way to normalize the patient’s health. But the principle of operation of most drugs of this class is closely related to the effect on the central nervous system (CNS), therefore uncontrolled reception, especially for a long time, is fraught with serious complications, the development of addiction and other side effects.

Main pharmacological groups

The wide spread of sleep disorders prompted the medical profession to a more detailed study of the physiology of this process and the causes contributing to such disorders. Sleep consists of several stages:

  • the first and second phases of REM sleep (it takes 2–5% and 45–55% of the total duration of the night’s rest, respectively);
  • the deepest delta is sleep (13–23%);
  • fast sleep (20 – 25%).

Normally, the duration of healthy sleep is from 6.5 to 8.5 hours. This time is enough for a good rest and recuperation. In this case, wakefulness (the process of falling asleep) should take no more than 5%. Insomnia is accompanied by a violation of the duration of all phases of sleep, their frequent change.

The main cause of persistent insomnia is mental illness (detected in 40% of patients) and a variety of chronic pathologies (diagnosed in 35% of patients). However, in 15% of cases, it is not possible to reliably establish the cause of sleep disorders, and then symptomatic therapy is prescribed.

The use of hypnotic drugs helps to normalize sleep and eliminate the main signs of insomnia:

  • general weakness and malaise;
  • decrease in mood;
  • depressed state;
  • lack of motivation, energy and initiative;
  • decrease in concentration of attention, which affects the quality of work performed, ability to drive motor vehicles, etc .;
  • heart rhythm disturbances, nausea, appetite upset.

But in addition to drugs, there are other methods of treating insomnia (psychotherapy, phototherapy, encephalophony, hypnotherapy). Given the relatively high probability of undesirable reactions, medications are used only if there is no result from other ways of dealing with insomnia.

For the treatment of insomnia, drugs are used from the following pharmacological groups:

  • herbal preparations, charges of medicinal herbs with a sedative effect;
  • agents that mimic the effects of the hormone melatonin;
  • blockers of N-histamine receptors (antihistamine drugs);
  • benzodiazepines;
  • barbiturates;
  • antipsychotics and antidepressants with a predominant hypnotic effect.

More recently, non-benzodiazepine so-called Z drugs have entered clinical practice (the name of this group is derived from three active ingredients – a derivative of cyclopyrrolone zopiclon, imidazopyridine zolpidem and pyrozolopyrimidine zaleplon). It is these sleeping pills and sedatives that are considered the safest for treating insomnia.

Insomnia

Because of the effect on the central nervous system and brain activity, most sleeping pills are legally sold only by prescription. A rating of relatively harmless sedatives is headed by melatonin drugs. In humans, a large part of this hormone is produced by the epiphysis (brain structure), and its secretion is synchronized with the day-night cycle (at night the melatonin concentration is 200 pg / ml, and during the day it is 10 pg / ml).

In accordance with the data of clinical studies, the role of melatonin in the regulation of sleep and biorhythms is beyond doubt. Therefore, the use of this hormone in the composition of drugs allows you to cope with insomnia with minimal risk of side effects.

Melaxen (USA)

The cost of these drugs ranges from 300 to 730 rubles. All of them are produced in the form of tablets coated with a shell soluble in the intestinal cavity. The recommended dosage is 3 mg of melatonin (which corresponds to one tablet). Take the drug for 30 – 40 minutes before bedtime. For the prevention of insomnia, occurring against the background of a time zone change, the medication is started 1–2 days before the trip and continues for 3–4 days.

Homeopathic remedies also belong to the non-prescription list of lung hypnotics. These drugs contain natural ingredients, so they have practically no contraindications with the exception of individual intolerance.

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